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                            哈佛大學新研究揭示海綿基因組傳達遺傳復雜性的出現

                            哈佛大學新研究揭示海綿基因組傳達遺傳復雜性的出現
                             

                              哈佛大學最近研究了四個綱(Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Calcarea)八個種海綿的轉錄組,專門尋找與動物復雜性相關的基因和途徑,成果發表在Mol Biol Evol上。

                              海綿(多孔動物)是最早進化的動物,它濾食性身體計劃是由復雜的含水系統組成的環細胞室組成的,在后生動物中非常獨特。它表示海綿與其他動物在肌肉和神經功能進化之前早有分歧,或表示海綿已失去這些特征。Amphimedon和Oscarella基因組的分析支持這一觀點——許多后生動物的關鍵基因在所研究的海綿中的是不存在的,但其他海綿中這些基因的存在是未知的。哈佛大學最近研究了四個綱(Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Calcarea)八個種海綿的轉錄組,專門尋找與動物復雜性相關的基因和途徑,成果發表在Mol Biol Evol上。

                              他們在三種單細胞后鞭毛生物和兩種兩側對稱動物類群的轉錄組和基因組中尋找這些基因作為參考。他們的分析表明,所有海綿綱與其他后生動物共享補充基因。該團隊發現Hexactinellid, Calcareous and Homoscleromorph三種海綿與非兩側對稱動物相比共享給兩側對稱動物更多的基因(由聯川生物提供poly(A)RNA測序服務)。

                              他們還發現大多數分子代表參與細胞與細胞間的通信,發出信號,活躍在復雜的上皮細胞中,免疫識別和生殖系/性別,只有少數潛在的關鍵分子沒有參與。一個值得注意的發現是,所有尋常海綿綱(轉錄組和Amphimedon基因組)某些重要基因的缺失可能反映了主干譜系包括Hexactinellid, Calcareous and Homoscleromorph的分歧。

                              其結果表明,遺傳復雜性產生于進化初,這些基因在大多數動物細胞系是存在的。這表明海綿要么具有隱蔽生理和形態的復雜性,要么失去祖細胞類型或生理過程。

                            原文摘要:

                            The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all Porifera classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges

                            Ana Riesgo, Nathan Farrar, Pamela J Windsor, Gonzalo Giribet and Sally P Leys

                              Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness – many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges – but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with non-bilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedongenome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

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